Drilling Rig

A drilling rig is a machine which creates holes (usually called boreholes) and/or shafts in the ground. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells, or they can be small enough to be moved manually by one person.[citation needed] They sample sub-surface mineral deposits, test rock, soil and groundwater physical properties, and also can be used to install sub-surface fabrications, such as underground utilities, instrumentation, tunnels or wells. Drilling rigs can be mobile equipment mounted on trucks, tracks or trailers, or more permanent land or marine-based structures (such as oil platforms, commonly called 'offshore oil rigs' even if they don't contain a drilling rig). The term "rig" therefore generally refers to the complex of equipment that is used to penetrate the surface of the earth's crust.

Drilling rigs can be:

* Small and portable, such as those used in mineral exploration drilling, water wells and environmental investigations.

* Huge, capable of drilling through thousands of meters of the Earth's crust. Large "mud pumps" circulate drilling mud (slurry) through the drill bit and up the casing annulus, for cooling and removing the "cuttings" while a well is drilled. Hoists in the rig can lift hundreds of tons of pipe. Other equipment can force acid or sand into reservoirs to facilitate extraction of the oil or natural gas; and in remote locations there can be permanent living accommodation and catering for crews (which may be more than a hundred). Marine rigs may operate many hundreds of miles or kilometres distant from the supply base with infrequent crew rotation.

Until internal combustion engines came in the late 19th century, the main method for drilling rock was muscle power of man or animal. Rods were turned by hand, using clamps attached to the rod. The rope and drop method invented in Zigong, China used a steel rod or piston raised and dropped vertically via a rope. Mechanised versions of this persisted until about 1970, using a cam to rapidly raise and drop what, by then, was a steel cable.

In the 1970s, outside of the oil and gas industry, roller bits using mud circulation were replaced by the first efficient pneumatic reciprocating piston Reverse Circulation RC drills, and became essentially obsolete for most shallow drilling, and are now only used in certain situations where rocks preclude other methods. RC drilling proved much faster and more efficient, and continues to improve with better metallurgy, deriving harder, more durable bits, and compressors delivering higher air pressures at higher volumes, enabling deeper and faster penetration. Diamond drilling has remained essentially unchanged since its inception.


life in a nut shell said...

i've got a question about a piece of equipment; am wondering if you can tell me what it's called.

it's supposedly used in situations when a drill bit has gotten 'stuck', and more typical methods of retracting it haven't worked; and also if/when there might be a concern that 'sparks' from retraction could cause ignition. at least that's what i've been told.

it's supposedly "a device that goes down in the drill hole and burrows around the drill head and puts a 4 inch thick metal plate over the drill hole and then attaches itself to the drill head at the same time". then the engineer would begin to gently pull until the head got free of the bedrock.

my question is...have you ever heard of such a device; and if so...what is it called. and better yet...do you know who invented it?


Diamond Core drill said...

The blog contains the detailed description of drilling technology.. Any beginner can also easily understand and learn the technology..

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